The Authority We Follow

by Jon Kauffman

Recently I attended a seminar. During the question and answer time, I asked 2 questions:

I said, John 20:21-23 says: 21 Again Jesus said, “Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you.” 22 And with that he breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit. 23 If you forgive anyone’s sins, their sins are forgiven; if you do not forgive them, they are not forgiven.”  

Question one: if a Christian does not forgive a non-Christian, does that mean that the non-Christian cannot be forgiven?

Question two: Many Christians approved of the US military killing many more people in the Middle East in (revenge?) Can any of those people Middle East be forgiven?

In reference to the second question, one of the seminar leaders said that Christians had the responsibility to follow the authority of the state.

Who is the final authority for a Christian? Is it the state?

Do we have the authority to follow the leadership of the state when the leading of the state conflicts with the teachings of Jesus?

As Christians, I believe that our allegiance belongs to Jesus. Our responsibility to obey the state ends when their request conflicts with the teaching of Jesus. We must refuse to do anything that is in conflict with the teaching of Jesus.  

Glen Eyrie Castle

Jesus, The Kingdom of God and the State.

Jesus began his ministry by rejecting government as a solution to build his Kingdom and ended his ministry rejecting government.

Jesus overcame the temptation of using the state to build the Kingdom of God when the devil tempted him in the desert.

Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor. “All this I will give you,” he said, “if you will bow down and worship me.” 10 Jesus said to him, “Away from me, Satan! For it is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God, and serve him only.’ Matthew 4:8-10 NIV.

Jesus rejected using the state to build the Kingdom of God when he tells Pilate that his Kingdom is not of this world.

33 Pilate then went back inside the palace, summoned Jesus and asked him, “Are you the king of the Jews?”34 “Is that your own idea,” Jesus asked, “or did others talk to you about me?”35 “Am I a Jew?” Pilate replied. “Your own people and chief priests handed you over to me. What is it you have done?” 36 Jesus said, “My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jewish leaders. But now my kingdom is from another place.”37 “You are a king, then!” said Pilate. Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. In fact, the reason I was born and came into the world is to testify to the truth. Everyone on the side of truth listens to me.” John 18: 33-37 NIV

Refusing to Bow to the State.

Peter and the other apostles said we must obey God rather than men:

29 Peter and the other apostles replied: “We must obey God rather than human beings! 30 The God of our ancestors raised Jesus from the dead—whom you killed by hanging him on a cross. 31 God exalted him to his own right hand as Prince and Savior that he might bring Israel to repentance and forgive their sins. 32 We are witnesses of these things, and so is the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those who obey him.” Acts 5:29 NIV

Weapons of the Kingdom of God

Paul tells us that the weapons of the Kingdom of God are not the same as the weapons of the world.

For though we live in the world, we do not wage war as the world does. The weapons we fight with are not the weapons of the world. On the contrary, they have divine power to demolish strongholds. We demolish arguments and every pretension that sets itself up against the knowledge of God, and we take captive every thought to make it obedient to Christ. 2 Corinthians 10:5,6

Rebelling Against Government

In Romans 13, Paul says Christians are subject to the governing authorities. Nowhere does Romans mention that Christians should participate in violence. Quite the opposite. Many Jews, including some of Jesus’ disciples prior to the resurrection, wanted to violently overthrow Rome.

Paul says in Romans 13 that whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against God. Rome treated the Jews far more unjustly than England ever treated the American colonists. Paul told the Christians not to rebel and yet there are some Christians who use this passage to justify Christians participating in war. Some of these same Christians also believe the 13 colonies had God’s approval when they rebelled against the English!?


Some use Romans 13 to suggest that we are required to give the state great authority. However leading up to Romans 13 is Romans 10:9.

Romans 10:9 says: If you declare with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.

If Jesus is Lord or (King) or (President) is it even possible to consider the worldly government (USA) (Great Britain) (Russian) etc. is in any way a higher authority than Jesus?

How Jesus Treated Enemies

In Matthew 8:5-13, Jesus showed us how to treat our enemies.

The centurion was an enemy soldier. It is quite possible the centurion was one of the soldiers involved in killing Jews on crosses. Romans used the cross to keep the rebels in line.

When Jesus healed the centurion’s servant, this is like an American Christian supplying Osama bin Laden with a dialysis machine in 2002. Or an American doctor helping a close adviser of Hitler using his medical healing powers during World War Two.

Position Of The Early Church On Violence

Even after Constantine came to power in 306 AD the 300 Bishops in the Council of Nicaea (325 AD) called Christians to leave the military and this was the official view of the Roman church at that time.

“Those who endured violence and were seen to have resisted, but who afterwards yielded to wickedness, and returned to the army, shall be excommunicated for ten years.” Excerpt from Cannon 12 of the Council of Nicaea.

Retraction: I was in error on the meaning of Cannon 12 of the Council of Nicaea. Constantine lead the Council of Nicaea and he desired a great military. It is unlikely he would have a Cannon which condemned military service. This council was actually likely directed against the followers of Constantine’s co-emperor, Licinius, who during the civil war required his soldiers to sacrifice to pagan gods. The soldiers mentioned in Cannon 12 are soldiers who followed Licinius’ orders to sacrifice to these gods. See “Christian History for Everyman.” 6/2/2022

Does Just War Exist?

Reasons Christians Give to Say Violence by Christians is Legitimate

All My Posts (Links)

Edited: 10/9/2021
Edited: 6/2/2022

Copyright © 2021 by Jon Kauffman. Permission to reprint in whole or in part is gladly granted when used to further the Kingdom of God. Permission is gladly given to re-blog this post.

Author: Jon

Jon Kauffman graduated from Goshen College, earning a BA in Religion. Jon attended a Mennonite Church while growing up and currently attends the Salvation Army Church. Jon works as a drafter at TrueNorth Steel, Fargo, ND.

3 thoughts on “The Authority We Follow”

  1. Important thoughts here brother. I have to disagree with your point re the Centurion. I wouldn’t broadstroke all those soldiers as I wouldn’t do so re Pharasees. Some did believe and this Centurion called Jesus “Lord”. He was not like Osama Bin Laden or a Nazi.
    But I agree with your underlying premises. Christians need to realize that the God of this world, Satan, manipulates men and events – strategically leading to wars, chaos, and death. When we engage in world affairs, and lend our heart and passion, we are operating in the kingdom of darkness.
    We were rescued out of the kingdom of darkness and brought into the Kingdom of God. The thought of improving or changing this world is a prideful spiritual delusion – those on that path will miss God’s purpose for their life.
    I hope I haven’t over-spoke!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Yes I agree with you. The Centurion was a follower of Jesus. But if he was ordered to kill Jesus would he have obeyed? Would he have had a choice?

      The government can be so deceptive. I believe that the German Nazi Government had convinced many Christian soldiers that they were doing the right thing by fighting for Nazi Germany. In the same way, if we join the US military, if we are ordered to participate in injustice, will we see the injustice? Will we be able to say no?


      1. These are such excellent questions! Re the Centurion, at the juncture of decision, obeying a wicked command would disqualify him as an actual “follower of Jesus”.
        But I agree completely, governments are deceptive and manipulating, overseen by the ‘prince of the power of the air’.
        “…if we are ordered to participate in injustice, will we see the injustice?” Good question. We must walk close with the Lord for spiritual discernment.
        Good points brother!

        Liked by 1 person

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